Historiography of Basotho Cosmology

Historiography of Basotho Cosmology
By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

Please note there is an audio podcast of the 702 FM Radio at the end of this article. You must subscribe to enjoy the high quality content from Zulumathabo on the Internet 2.0 coming to you from Kgubukganare (the navel core of the intergalactic vibrations) via the World Wide Web.

Yesterday I was featured by the erudite DJ, Aubrey Masango of 702 FM Radio. It was a powerful conversation about the historiography of the cosmology of the Basotho.

The interview discussed the topic of Historiography of Basotho Philosophy last night Thursday, September 10, 2020 after 10pm on 702 FM Radio with the indefatigable DJ, Aubrey Masango. The purpose of the topic was to foreground African philosophical principles and the indigenous methods used to produce this knowledge and its relevance to the modern African society.

I had an ambitious intent to cover several domains under this topic including the philosophy of cosmology; philosophy of language and philosophy of mathematics but the limitation of time did not permit us to cover all.

A question was asked about the meaning of cosmology. The Basotho word Nalane conceptualises about cosmology as having three components namely (1) cosmogony for genesis; (2) cosmography for spatial features and location and (3) indigenisation for localisation of the knowledge of the cosmos. In other words, cosmology is about the genesis of the people and the cosmos; the morphology and geography of the intergalactic star systems and their indigenous knowledge systems.

For those who missed the broadcast, we have the podcadt for you. Without further ado, the podcast appears below:

The indefatigable DJ, Aubrey Masango of 702 FM Radio. Picture Credit: Aubrey Masango Twitter.

702 FM Radio Podcast

The Swart Gevaar

The Swart Gevaar

By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

The Preamble

The beautiful land of Azania (South Africa) and the land of endless sunshine is arrested by the vestigial chains of the Luso-Anglo-Dutch settler colonialism that began on Christmas Day in 1497 under the command of Vasco da Gama and to be subsequently butressed by the Dutch-Flemish Jan van Riebeeck of South Holland. This taxonomy of colonization is like a tenacious monkey on the back that is proving hard to shake off. It is also like a mathematical conjecture that remains uncracked.

Jan van Riebeek and his crew meeting the African Natives at Table Bay in April 1652. Picture Credit: Wikipedia.

This article utilises the new cutting edge research methods that use the multidisciplinary framework of Africography to foreground Metaphysics; Cosmology; Historiography; Linguistics and Metascience. We are inspired by the need to rely on uncontested facts that speak for themselves for the benefit of those coming after us.

Amongst many forms of colonial systems, a settler colonial configuration is the most brutal in terms of colonial conquest. A settler colonial schemata is more far reaching in the scattering; the unbalancing; the dispossession; the genocide and the the displacement of the local indigenous peoples of the land.

The Displacement

The principle of displacement leads to extinction as is the case with a cuckoo bird. Unlike other birds, the cuckoo does not build a nest. She waits for another bird to build the nest and to start laying eggs. When the owner of the nest goes out to find some sustenance, the surreptitious cuckoo stealthily moves in to lay her eggs amongs the eggs already in the nest. When the host returns, there are more eggs in the nest than before. Since maternal love does not tally the clutch, she assumes they are all hers.

When cuckoo chicks hatch (they are wired to hatch faster than incumbent chicks), they instinctively jettison the host eggs out of the nest until the cuckoo chicks are the only ones left in the host nest. Having thus displaced the incumbents, the mother bird now has to work twice as hard to feed her new insatiable chicks. This is the cruel displacement of the incumbent chicks by the agonist cuckoos.

The Official Policy of Extermination

This was the case with the Cape Colony of the Dutch East India Company known as VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) when it surreptitiously gained a colonial foothold in Azania by hook and crook. As meticulously recorded by the English missionary and Supertendant of the London Missionary Society in 1791 at the Cape of Good Hope Rev John Philip in his journals, the Dutch Colony had an official policy of exterminating the Black men who resisted the settler colonial expansionism. The library of Rev Philip and the research papers of his archive were later destroyed by unexplained arsonist fire.

The official policy of exterminating a Black man marked the genesis of Swart Gevaar (Black Danger) used to describe and to target a Black man for elimination. The official policy of extermination was carried out by the Dutch military units known as Commandos.

The Dutch Colony of Jan van Riebeeck is the inventor of the Commando military system which later inspired the formation of the SADF (South African Defence Force) during the era of the Apartheid State which began in 1948. The Etymology Dictionary Online confirms that the word Commando is attested for in 1791 in the Dutch Cape Colony.

The Commando System and “Go Commando”

The Black men were shot on sight by the commandos and their women captured as a prize to be distributed among the male members of the Commando along with children and cattle. As a consequence, the Mulatto population increased to outnumber the San; the Khoi; the Nama; the Xhosa; the Sotho and others in the Western Cape.

On account of taking the wives of the exterminated Black men for their self-gratification, a new expression known as “go commando” or “going commando” was coined to mean a woman must not wear an undy because the wives of the slain Black men of the era were found without undies. Thus, the Dutch Cape Colony Commando was a tactical and testicular killing machine.

The extermination policy of Swart Gevaar was used by the subsequent Voortrekker; Apartheid State and some colonial descendants to conquer and to rape the beautul land and to brutalise the Black man as is the case in modern times as confirmed by Azania’s many newspaper reports of incidents like the spray painting of the Black man; feeding the Black man into the lion’s den or shooting him and later to attest before a court judge that the Black man was mistaken for a baboon just like the White Ottawa police who shoot a Black man on a mistaken identity. Without further ado, the literary piece The Swart Gevaar.

cultures clashed in bloodpath,
Swart Gevaar on the gun’s path
Genocidal Dutch colony in 1652
To arrest destiny of Swart Gevaar
Hateful target is the Melanin
Rape target is the Motherland
To exterminate the Melanin

fang-like chains for Swart Gevaar
extract nutrients from afar
To unbalance the Melanin
To impair the serotonin
Hitherto, the Melanin disrupted
Hereafter, recovery corrupted
Haters suckled from hateful breasts

Contextual Commentary

The great desert flower Mponeng of the vast expanse of the Kgalagadi (Kalahari) desert remains loyal to the post like a good soldier in spite of the extreme drought. The scarred memories of the past recreate the cruel blows of the elements like a diluted existence that overshadows the sacred glow of a resilient plant. The resilient plant with an ability to recover from setback must restrain the memories of the past to enhance its survival experience in spite of the perturbations of the terrestrial space.

From the book A Woman In The Bush in the literary piece Diluted Existence we read these lines:

“To degrade like bad cadence
To fail to act in accordance
To lead a diluted existence
Tendencies to disobey the voices
To disaffirm the voice of instinct
To render existence more succinct
Instinct is better than the mind
Instinct is always as divined
Its path never to be confined”.

Book Cover of A Woman in the Bush. Picture Credit: Z. Zulu.

Many days have passed without rain. It is not feasible to resist forever without water. Photosynthesis necessitates water as the first order of business. In the absence of water, photosynthesis is deletarious to the wellbeing of the plant. It is hard to draw strength when the innermost is falling apart pulled in opposite directions like disassembling on account of weak thoughts. A weak thought is like a pessimist microscope that magnifies the adverse conditions.

The plant trusts its instincts and vigorously resists these weak thoughts to gain a higher sense like a helicoptor view and never to be subdued like a caterpillar view on account of the anxious thoughts. When fixated on weak thoughts, it gives an override to the funks. The overtures of the funks must be preempted with vengeance like the indefatigable Ichiliza girl of Zululand when resisting unwelcome sexual advances.

Sacred thoughts and strategic vision are needed for clearity of the mind to see the way. For this reason, the plant must refuse to iterate the adverse conditions that exist. Iteration should only be used for purposes of regression analysis in order to find the interpolation data points that are closer to the regression line and to avoid the extrapolation data points that are further from the regression line.

If the waterless circumstences persist, the plant must make some tough decisions to disengage the photosynthesis and to prepare the underground as a refuge to await the advent of the falling rain in the safety of the subterrain.

While making a good faith attempt to resist the extreme drought, the plant must remain undefined in the adverse conditions of the wasteland. Sometimes the tropospheric configuration plays a cruel game when promissory rain clouds appear only to disappear shortly afterwards with no rain in sight.

These tropospheric perturbations are very hard on the desert plant that anticipates the rain. As a matter of exigence, the desert plant retreats to the underground to await the advent of the rain without worrying about photosynthesis. The maxim of military strategy is pertinent herein that those who run away will live to fight another day.

Moreover, the desert plant is pregnant with a precious seed to preserve for the future generations. The preparations must be made to deposit the golden seed to the underground. The desert seed must remain safely deposited in the vault of the underground while listening to the slightest indications of the coming rain.

The sanctuary of the underground is refreshing to the desert plant but it also carries the prospect of a risky underside like the dark side of the moon. There are bacterial decomposers whose business is to exterminate the undefended rhyzome leaving no trace of its former self. The plant must install counter measures and remain neurotic and guarded at all times to avoid the subliminal infiltration of the draconian decomposition. The counter measures of the African desert plant can preserve the seed for decades even centuries for the survival benefit of the future generations.

When the rains fall, the plant energetically springs to life like the coiled Masumu of Matamong. The new rain is evanescent and will soon vanish into oblivion leaving no trace of the precipitation. The risk-taking plant internalises the falling rain knowing that the rain will soon be gone. No need to fixate on the adverse conditions of the harsh memories of the past. Life must go on and the plant must dance in the breeze wearing some green like a new chapter of zestful living as if there was no problem because the desert flower is not defined by the problem.

La lucha continua! (The struggle continues); No rendirse! (No surrender); Nunca jamas! (Never, never); El destino es nuestro! (The destiny is ours). Siyathokoza Makhosi! (High Veneration To The Ancestors).


Zulu, ZZulu, Z (2014). The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg. (2014).

The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg.

Zulu, Z. (2019) “African Metaphysical Science and Decolonisation”, Faculty of Education, North West University – Potchefstroom, North West Province, Azania.

Zulu, Z (2008). ‘Ontological States of the Object’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z .(2009c). ‘The African Philosophy of Coexistentialism’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z. (2019) “African Metaphysical Science and Decolonisation”, Faculty of Education, North West University – Potchefstroom, North West Province, Azania.

Zulu, Z. Ontological States of the Object, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z. Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy, Unpublished, Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Philip, J.(1791). Researches in South Africa.

African Religion of the Basotho on Lesedi FM

African Religion of the Basotho on Lesedi FM 
By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

An interview with the efferveacent DJ, ausi Ntsoaki Motloung broadcast on Tuesday, August 11, 2020 on Lesedi FM Radio station about African religion and spirituality of the Basotho is brought to you in the form of a podcast.

The effervescent DJ, Ntsoaki Motloung of the highly popular show Lenaka La Motheo at Lesedi FM. Picture Credit: Lesedi FM.

The topics discussed Ditaelo (the organising principles); Hoila (abstinenece); Hohlweka (cleansing); Hoboka (veneration); Modumedi (the one from the star systems); Motsheyo (the sacred shrine); Badimo (the ancestors) and much more.

Without further ado, the podcast is shared below:

Lesedi FM Radio

Basotho Cosmology on SAFM Radio

Basotho Cosmology on SAFM Radio
By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

We had a lively conversation with the indefatigable DJ, ausi Phemelo Motene along with listeners of SAFM Radio station last Tuesday on August 25, 2020. If you missed this conversation, no worries!

The indefatigable and highly popular DJ, Phemelo Motene. Picture Credit: SAFM.

We have the full length podcast on the topics discussed including cosmology; the kgwetsa of the child; the naming ceremony of Seromo; the matrilineal social structure of the Basotho; the economic system of Mafisa; the baby moons of Tosa (Jupiter); the clannish maiden names and much more.

Without further ado, herein is the podcast as follows:

SAFM Radio Podcast

Historiography of Mfecane/Difaqane on 702 FM Radio

By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu

702 FM Radio Podcast

Yesterday Thursday night August 27, 2020 after 10pm, I was interviewed by an engaging and popular DJ, Aubrey Masango on 702 FM Radio station on the topic of Mfecane/Difaqane.

This was a lively and engaging topic that foregrounded history; historiography; metaphysics and cosmology. I received lots of positive feedback from those who listened to the show.

Mfecane/Difaqane is about a tragic period in Azania (South Africa) of displacement; genocide and forced migrations that took place in the second and third decades of the 1800s. Millions of our people lost their lives; got displaced or got sold into a cruel trade of enslavement.

Does the name Mfecane have a lexical root in the African languages? How did this name come about? What was the history that gave rise to Mfecane/Difaqane?

If you missed the show last night, no worries! We have uploaded the full length radio podcast for your benefit. Without further ado, the Mfecane podcast.

702 FM Radio Podcast

Historicity of Mfecane on 702 Radio FM

By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

The perpetual truth seeker and DJ extraordinaire Aubrey Masango of 702 FM Radio station. Picture Credit: 702 FM Radio.

Please listen to 702 FM Radio tonight on Thursday August 27, 2020 at 10:07PM the great DJ Aubrew Mahlango. I will be talking about the hostoricity of Mfecane/Difaqane that resulted in the massive demise of our people in the 1800s. Where does the name Mfecane/Difaqane come from? Why did our people suffer like this? What caused the cruel displacement of our people? Who is responsible for this brutal part of our history? Listen to the radio tonight.

Tsamaroko! Ezamathongo! Thokoza Makhosi! Mocholoko, Zulumathabo Zulu.

African Knowledge on SAFM With Phemelo Motene

Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

This serves to inform you that tomorrow on Tuesday August 25, 2020 I will be featured on SAFM Radio station with the indefatigable DJ of SAFM ausi Phemelo Motene in the first segment of her afternoon show Life Happens at 13:15 to 14:00.

The SAFM Radio premiers a new feature of Indigenous Knowledge Systems with ausi Phemelo Motene tomorrow. We applaud ausi Phemelo Motene and her radio station for their gutsy spirit to traverse this uncharted epistemic territory to expose the discerning SAFM Radio audience to the edifying content from the treasure chest of the unique insights of African origins of cosmologic knowledge that we faithfully produce on the ground. As a Research Scientist and Director of Madisebo University College Institute, I can assure you that we lead the charge on the ground with respect to the  authenticity of African origins and ways of knowing.

The indefatigable DJ, Phemelo Motene in her popular SAFM Radio show Life Happens. Picture Credit: SAFM Radio.

I will be covering three topics under the indigenous knowledge systems namely African Cosmology (Basotho and other Africans knowledge of the cosmos); African Mathematics (Basotho origin of mathematics) and African Medicine (indigenous medicine) in the light of Covid-19.

For African historiography, I will refer to my books like The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence; Kgolaboloko: African Roots of Cosmic Genesis; Sesotho Dictionary of Mathematics and my website Zulumathabo on the Internet 2.0 as follows:

The New Year of the Basotho in 2020 began last week on Hothwasa Ha Kgwedi (the New Moon) on Wednesday August 19, 2020. This is the great way to start off the new feature of the show. Cosmology will foreground this new year and the cosmic knowledge of the Basotho. We will broaden this to show how the African people in general are highly influenced and guided by the star systems of the intergalactic heavens with respect to the genesis; the birthing; the naming of the children; the methods of food production; the marriage ceremonies and their spirituality.

La lucha continua! (The struggle continues); No rendirse! (No surrender); Nunca jamas! (Never, never); El destino es nuestro! (The destiny is ours). Ezamathongo! Tsamaroko! (For the ancestors). Siyathokoza Makhosi! (High veneration to the ancestors).


Zulu, Z (2014). The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg.

Zulu, Z. (2019) “African Metaphysical Science and Decolonisation”, Faculty of Education, North West University – Potchefstroom, North West Province, Azania.

Zulu, Z. (2015a). Basotho Origin of Mathematics, URL = https://zulumathabo.com/the-basotho-origin-of-mathematics-a-public-lecture/ (accessed August 17, 2020).

Zulu, Z. (2015b). Numerical Logic of the Basotho, URL = https://zulumathabo.com/2015/11/30/numerical-logic-of-the-basotho-part-i/ (accessed August 17, 2020).

Zulu, Z. (2020a). Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy (In Progress). Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Zulu, Z. (2020b). Sesotho Dictionary of Chemistry: African Origin of Ethnomedicinal Chemistry (In Progress). Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Zulu, Z. (2009). ‘The Color Medicine’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

African Origin of Causality: Philosophical Principles of Aetiology

By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu

Research Scientist & Director: Madisebo University College


The Covid situation has created an extreme sense of urgency with respect to finding a cure. To solve a problem, it is imperative to understand the metaphysical cases of causality. This necessitates a paradigm case with respect to the conceptualisation of the problem. In a discourse that is flush with the dominance of Western ideas, what is the role of indigenous medicine? How does African therapeutics conceptualise about the aetiology of disease? We show herein that indigenous medicine has the potential to broaden and to enrich the aetiological and therapeutic discourse from the treasure chest of its unique insights.


Zulu, Z (2014). The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg.

Zulu, Z. (2019) “African Metaphysical Science and Decolonisation”, Faculty of Education, North West University – Potchefstroom, North West Province, Azania.

Zulu, Z. (2006). ‘African Origin of Metascience’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z (2008). ‘Ontological States of the Object’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z. (2015a). Basotho Origin of Mathematics, URL = https://zulumathabo.com/the-basotho-origin-of-mathematics-a-public-lecture/ (accessed August 17, 2020).

Zulu, Z. (2015b). Numerical Logic of the Basotho, URL = https://zulumathabo.com/2015/11/30/numerical-logic-of-the-basotho-part-i/ (accessed August 17, 2020).

Zulu, Z. (2020a). Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy (In Progress). Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Zulu, Z. (2020b). Sesotho Dictionary of Chemistry: African Origin of Ethnomedicinal Chemistry (In Progress). Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Zulu, Z (2009a). ‘The African Philosophy of  Coexistentialism’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z. (2009b). ‘African Origin of Metascience’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z .(2009c). ‘The African Philosophy of Coexistentialism’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z .(2009d). ‘Thekwini Visual Canvass – Philosophical Notes and Indigenous Innovation’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada .

Zulu, Z. (2009e). ‘The Color Medicine’, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Masters and PhD Opportunities for African Natives

Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

This article consists of two parts namely (1) the New Year of the Basotho and (2) the Masters and PhD study opportunities. We begin with the New Year of the Basotho.

The New Year of the Basotho!

Today is day three of the New Year in the Basotho calendar! The New Year began on Wednesday August 19, 2020 as I discussed in my interview with the great Mosotho DJ ausi Ntsoaki Motloung in the Lenaka La Motheo show of Lesedi FM Radio station.

Basadi ba batle ba Basotho ba keteka Selemo se secha sebakeng sa Gauteng. Picture Credit: Mocholoko.

Tonight we should see about 8% of the moon waxing from Hothwasa. Halala selemo se setle sa Basotho halala! Moetlo o ka seshwe re leteng re shebile. Hopola Bonkgono le Baholo le Masakana a Ditaelo tse tharo eleng (1) Hoila; (2) Hohlweka le (3) Hoboka. Mona re kwetliswa mebele; maikutlo le menahano hore re seke ra laolwa ke ditakatso tsa nama. Re se buswe ke ditshusumetsa tsa dikatatso. Re se buswe ke menahano eseng taolong. Re se buswe ke maikutlo a senang mosebetsi.

Hothakgisa Ditakatso le Ditshusumetso

Retlameha hothakgisa ditakatso tsa nama. Retlameha hothakgisa ditsusumetso tsa nama! Retlameha hothakgisa ditshusumetso tsa makutlo a sa laoleheng. Retlameha hothakgisa ditshusumetso tsa menahano ya lefela.

Bukeng ya haye eleng Indaba My Children Senose se seholo, Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa o tshetleha tjena ka taba tsena tsa honatefelwa:

Even the sweetest honey can produce excess of bile, and there is death in every pleasure”.

Ka Sesotho: “Le mamepa a hlabosang ka hofetisisa a ka ntsha nyoko e babang, hape honale lebitla monateng o mong le omong”.

Senose Mutwa se toboketsa koduwo ya monate hore nyoko e teng mamepeng. Dikgeheng tsa mamepa honale nyoko e babang. Le lebitla leka thoko ho monate. Ha monate o ntse o puta, lebitla le lona le ya puta haufinyana. O tla bolawa ke monate. O tla fetola bana dikgutsana ka baka la monate wa dirope tse benyang.

Hopola hore motsheyo wa hao ke sebaka sa hohlweka le hohalalela. Ke ka baka leo hothweng ngwetsi haengalle haabo, engallela motsheo. Hobane motsheyo ke sebaka sa hobuisana le Badimo. Ditshila le bomenemene ha di batlehe motsheyo. Hoetswa fela diketso tse hlwekileng tsa sedimo sebakeng sa Motsheyo eseng tsa nama le ditshusumetso tsa teng.

Molaetsa Ho Bontate

Bontate tlohelang hohlekefetsa bomme, bana le malapa. Tlohelang hobuswa ke poto ya letsina. Tlohelang hohotetsa mofufutso wa phatla hofetoha molora. Tlohelang holaolwa ke ditakatso tsa nama. Tlohelang hothuba malapa ka baka la dirope tse benyang le bomenemene ba teng. Mosadi eo wa hao one a le motle haholo haone o monyala. Jwale ka baka la hofahlwa ke dirope tsa ba bang tse benyang, o se o bona mosadi wa hao ale mobe. Ha jwang? Hobane e ntse e le yena yeo o motsebang?

Re jala peo e babang hare phela ka bomenemene; manyofonyofo le hokgukguna mafifing. Ha re thuba malapa re baka dikgutsana tse senang bontate. Hothata hohola ntle le ntate. Bana bao ba tla ba le matetetso ka hare. Sechaba sa Thari ha se kgone hohatela pele kabaka la malapa le bana ba senang ntate,

Jwale rere bontate aparang senyofo hothibela honyofa. Boulelang malapa ao! Le wa lwanele. Le wa tshireletse. Mara aya wela ha a sena dihlwela.

Molaetsa Ho Bomme

Bomme tlohelang hoba leeme! Ratang bana ka holekana, eseng horata emong hofeta emong. Hao etsa jwalo, ojala peo ya lehloyo baneng. Ditholwana tsa teng di ya baba! Bomme tlohelang hohlekefetsa banana. Badimo ba yalla hore le rata bashemane hofeta banana empa bohle batswa popelong ya madi. O tseba mahlaba a pelehi fela o kgetha jwang emong hoemong? Banana baya hlekefetseha ka leeme la lona.

Bomme tlohelang hokena dipakeng tsa ntate le moshanyana ha ntate a kgalema. Ke bana ba haye o tlameha hobeya molao hore lelapa la haye le be tsamaisong ya molao le ditaelo. Bomme ba tshwara moshanyana jwale ka galase. Etla chwatleha galase. Le ya ba tetemisa bashanyana ba qetelle ba kgaiswa ke banana hape bafetoha ntho disele metseng ya sechaba.

Letlameha hokwetlisa bana kaofela hore ba tsebe molao. Basotho ba kgale bare chobolo e etsa bana ba batle hobane bana ba chobolo ba tseba molao. Ha ba tseba masika; meetlo; bonono le dithoko, re tlaba le ba etapele ba hlwahlwa ba tsebang molao; ditaelo le boitshwaro bo botle. Hoseng jwalo, digalase tsena ditlo sokodisa basadi ba qetelle ba qhala malapa jwale ka lesheleshele hobane matsale oya ba emela leha ba le phoso. Ha lesheleshele le qhaleile o tla le thonaka jwang? Haokgonahale. Le qhaleile le qhalaile!

Ntho tse ntle diyaiketsetswa! Mphemphe eya lapisa, motho o kgonwa ke sa haye! Tsamaroko! Ezamathongo! Badimo ke bao! Thokoza Makhosi!

I await the broadcast podcast from Lesedi FM Radio to share with you

Masters and PhD Funded Studies

I am sharing herein an excellent opportunity (shared below) to change your life and contribute to the real development of Mother Afrika, thanks to the great Professor Alinah Segobye of the Namibian University of Science and Technology who shared this with me. Professor Segobye and me are part of the multi-university committee under the leadership of the distinguished Executive Dean of Humanities Professor Pamela Maseko comprised by North West University and Namibian University of Science and Technology.

Our best hope to emancipate Mother Afrika from the claws of poverty; insecurity and pestillence is to produce a highly disciplined and culturally grounded cadre of young African erudites. In our past liberation movements we made grivious mistakes of teaching foreign ideologies and failing to teach local African indigenous knowledge systems.

Young people who are not encumbered by historical baggage can reverse the course of history and correct these tragic mistakes by learning about the African ways of knowing. In this way, the Motherland will be free from poverty; civil/religious/ethnic conflict and pestillence so that she tenaciously rise to retake her inalienable role as the unbought and the unsold architect of destiny so that her babies can vibrate as they were intended to vibrate like Tosa le Madinyana a yona (Jupiter and her baby moons). Read more about Tosa of the Basotho below:

The Intra-Africa Academic Mobility Scheme under the Pan-African Programme (Development Cooperation Instrument) which makes this opportunity of study possible is funded jointly by the African Union and the European Union. This agency is offering scholarships and stipends to African descendants to pursue scientific; engineering and agricultural studies at the levels of Masters and PhDs.

These studies can be pursued in one of five countries namely Namibia; Cameroon; Ghana; Ethiopia and Azania (South Africa). The respective programs of study are listed below:


  1. PhD in Spatial Science; Engineering and Natural Resources Science at the Namibian University of Science and Technology, Namibia.


  1. Master of Science in Agricultural Economics; Master of Science in Wetland Ecology and Management and PhD in Agronomy (Crop Production) at University of Buea, Cameroon.


  1. PhD in Food and Post-Harvest Engineering; Sustainability Energy Technologies and Masters of Renewable Energy Technologies at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.


  1. Master’s of Soil and Water Engineering, Plant Science and PhD in Plant Science; Animal Science and Animal Breeding and Genetics at Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

Azania (South Africa)

  1. Masters in Agricultural Economics and PhD in Disaster Management at University of the Free State, Azania (South Africa).

The deadline to apply is September 4, 2020. Waste no time! Procrastination is the thief of time! What are you waiting for?

Wishing all the youth and our sisters well in this excellent opportunity! Tsamaroko! Ezamathongo!

Racially Segregated Townships

Racially Segregated Townships
By Mocholoko (Dr), Zulumathabo Zulu © 2020

The Preamble

In this analytic article using metascience, we focus attention on a racially segregated infrastructure as an artifact of design. In the Basotho philosophy (Basotho; Bapedi; Batswana) which I describe in the forth coming book Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy there are five taxa (philosophical categories) of Nahanosene namely (1) Phe; (2) Tse; (3) Ra; (4) Pha and (5) Tshe.

For purposes of this article we draw from category three which is Ra meaning design and arrangement. Words like Rala; Raloka; Moralo; Raleha; Raro; etcetera describe the design philosophy of a system. The Basotho taught the principles of design to their children at a very young age as confirmed by words like Moradi (a designer) and Mantlwana (game of architectural design), among others. Plants or certain actions are also named using the design principle as in Morara (twining plant like vine) or Raloka (design play).

According to the erudite ancestors of the Basotho who have gone before us, to understand Marangrang (infrastructure), necessitates the knowledge of design philosophy. In the land of Azania (South Africa), the design philosophy behind Marangrang was a permanent segregation of the races in order to ensure the mainstay of the economy is skewed in favour of the colonial descendants as per the strategy of the architects of racial segregation.

This racially segregated infrastructure would promote the superiority of Western ideas and lifestyle via institutions like the Church; the Bank; the School, and others. Images are part of this mind control like a White doll; a White god and White beauty. This fact of preserving colonial possessions was also transferred and encoded in the post-Apartheid Constitution of 1994 as confirmed in clause 25 that perpetuates the material interests of the colonial descendants at the expense of the African Natives.

In addition to the above, it is prudent to point out that the recorded minutes that ensued from those negotiations and agreements are hidden somewhere in a vault and are not made accessible for our historiographical review. This means we walk in the dark not knowing who proposed; counter-proposed and vetoed what or who got paid for what. The greatest question is: How long will these forensic records remain out of sight?

When I returned from exile in 2010, I made a good faith attempt to access these records but all I found were Groot Schuur and Pretoria minutes but actually they are not minutes. They are like a car dashboard that tells how how much petrol is in the tank without giving you the quantitative; qualitative and strategic details behind the petrol.

We need strategic knowledge in terms of the garage station; the cost of the petrol; the grade of the petrol; the volatility of the petrol; the amount of octane in the petrol; the impact of petrol on the environment; the revenues generated by the petrol; the market share of the petrol; the shareholders; the stock price; the oil refinements; the source of the petrol; the oil rigs or coal mines; the contribution of the petrol to the GDP; the taxation of the petrol and more. Without these scientific details, we are just like an intellectually disenfranchised driver who has no clue about the petrol that goes into the car and keeps the economy going.

To take over ownership of a new house, you need an appraiser to scientifically give you an agnostic appraisal of the house. If you skip the appraisal step then you assume responsibility of everything wrong about the house after signing the agreement. This is what our leaders have done in taking ownership of a new country without appraisal. Now they are blamed for all the wrong things.

Without further ado, we present Racially Segregated Townships.

the colonial infrastructure
like permanent architecture
Preserved racial segregation
Tightened fiscal strangulation
Sanitary distance between the races
Their mundane lives attested
Their reality arrested

the good Constitution slides
to end apartheid that hides
Segregated lives crushed by poverty
Segregated lives crushed by pestillence
I searched hard for envisagement
The only hope is the youth
To end segregation that persists


A drone photograph showing a racially segregated infrastructure in what CNN describes as a racist architecture. The highly dotted and dense township on the left is where the Black Africans live while the nicely spaced houses on the right is where the White colonial descendents live. There is a sanitary distance that creates a buffer zone to seperate the two peoples in the post-Apartheid Azania (South Africa). The highly corruptible leaders in the new political dispensation have been unable to end the racial segregation of the residential infrastructure because they stand to benefit from the racist architecture. The prophetic book The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born by the Ghanaian writer Ayi Kwei Armah fits hand and glove in the broken promise story of Azania. The beautiful ones are the uncorruptible ones but are not yet born. Armah lives in exile in Senegal as a result of writing this book. Picture Credit: CNN.

Contextual Commentary

In the article A White God wherein I describe my expedition to the desert of Kgalagadi (Kalahari) of Northern Botswana during my exile in 1987, I saw two things that changed my life namely (1) the harsh conditions of the desert and (2) the desert plant trying to make a living in the forbidden desert grounds. The desert is the adversity and the plant is the victory over adversity.

In the thesis of this contextual commentary, we elucidate the adversity and the envisagement.

The Adversity

We begin with adversity. I lived more than half of my life in the great City of Ottawa. As the Canadians will attest, moving is in the same harsh category as divorce and death. Thus, moving to a new place is an extreme form of adversity.

After I was vetted and officially certified as a landed immigrant in 1989 in the Toronto Pearson International Airport, I boarded the domestic Air Canada aircraft for Ottawa. After I had landed, I surveyed the land and looked at the infrastructure of Ottawa. To my pleasant amazement, I discovered a remarkable fact that the infrastructure of Ottawa was an agnostic infrastructure devoid of racial design unlike the case with the infrastructure of Azania (South Africa).

As a result of this paradigm case of experience, any new immigrant who lands in the great City of Ottawa integrates seamlessly into the greater society because of the absence of a racially segregated infrastructure. As I write these lines on a massively celebrated Women’s Day on August 10, 2020 in Azania, the economically and culturally disenfranchised women; men and children remain inescapably trapped in the brutal infrastructural axis of a racially segregated society albeit governed by the post-Apartheid non-racial constitutional agreements of 1994. 

Moreover, Ottawa boasts a welcome centre wherein the immigrant receives inductive orientation with respect to the Arctic seasons of the land; how to access available government and social services and how to overcome the transitional stress of settling down in a new country making Ottawa the most hospitable city I have ever sojourned!


Canada’s Parliament on the hill fondly known as Parliament Hill. You are looking at the Northern side of Ottawa and Southern side of the Ottawa River. I lived here near the Official Residence of the Prime Minister of Canada. The waters you see is the Ottawa River which seperates the English speaking province of Ontario and the French speaking province of Quebec. I have lived on both provinces of the region. The mighty Ottawa River freezes to a rock ice surface in Winter and you can walk on the river. I drove a car on that river inspired by a French speaking Quebecois who had his truck in the middle of the frozen river on an ice fishing expedition. Picture Credit: Greymouser, Wikipedia.

As a matter of fact, infrastructural segregation does not exist in Ottawa! The only segregation that exists is the psychic segregation wherein some Canadian families teach their innocent children the hateful ideology of White Supremacy. Barring that acrimonious reality, Ottawa is the greatest City to live in.

The Envisagement

Now we turn our focus to envisagement! If you spend more time in nature such as in the African desert, you will find that the desert is not about adversity alone. It is also about the envisagement as confirmed by the desert flower Mponeng that bursts into breathtaking petals when the rain comes pouring down from the heavens. This metaphysical experience of transcendence is the subject of the book The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. In the literary piece Venturesome Kisses, we read these lines:

“Forbidden grounds of love cast their spell. The naivety of love sweetens the love that exists like a desert flower. Deprived of water, the flower waits underground until, when the rains fall, it springs to life, knowing that the rain will soon be gone”.

The great desert flower Mponeng is not self-complacent! Her philosophical strategy is to restrain the natural urges; to arrest the bad habits; to prune the wrong tendencies and to preempt the natural genesis of pessimism. She internalises the rain in her succulents because she knows about the cruel ephemera of the falling rain. She has the instinctive grasp of the reality that the rain will soon be gone. In fact, the material evidence of the fallen rain can vanish into oblivion in a matter of minutes or hours.

For this reason, it is philosophically edifying that Mother Nature does not only throw adversity at you. She also gives you a fresh start of envisagement by way of a fragile plant showing some green in an otherwise drought stricken and faulted terrain. The desert plant is steeped in adversity! The desert plant is surrounded by an array of endless reasons to be an eternal pessimist but she does not allow the metaphysical cases of adversity to define her. She remains undefined in the adverse conditions of the terrestrial space.

Moreover, the desert flower is checked and highly disadvantaged. She is not able to run away from adversity like some men who run away from the adverse conditions as evidenced by father-absent boys and father-absent girls in the racially segregated townships of Azania.

Thus, Mponeng is the unbought and the unsold architect of destiny! She vibrates as she was intended to vibrate unimpeded by the adverse conditions in the terrestrial space. She vibrates in accordance with the cosmic resonance so that she does not lose the symmetry of resonance.

Symmetry is the antithesis of evil in the cosmologic philosophy of the Basotho as described in my forth coming book Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy. You can also listen to my electronica music CD, African Spirits in the Jungle recorded in my recording studio in the basement of the great matriarch of the Canadian family Janina Deveau.

La lucha continua! (The struggle continues); No rendirse! (No surrender); Nunca jamas! (Never, never); El destino es nuestro! (The destiny is ours). Siyathokoza Makhosi! (High veneration to the ancestors).


Armah, A. (1969). The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born. Heinemann African Writers Series: London.

Zulu, Z (2014). The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert: African Philosophical Transcendence. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg.

Zulu, Z (2014). A Woman In The Bush. Madisebo University College Press: Johannesburg.

Zulu, Z. (2019) “African Metaphysical Science and Decolonisation”, Faculty of Education, North West University – Potchefstroom, North West Province, Azania.

Zulu, Z. Ontological States of the Object, Unpublished, Ottawa, Canada.

Zulu, Z. Nahanosene: Basotho Origin of Philosophy, Unpublished, Madisebo University Press, Azania (South Africa).

Zulu, Z. (2007). African Spirits In The Jungle. Music CD. Genre: Electronica. Ottawa, Canada.