A Woman and Baby at Subway

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

She was halfway there
Rocket train unaware
Toronto like dangerous motion
Baby stroller trapped between
Mother also trapped between
Locomotion like Trojan
Every hope to abandon
Instinctive grasp to assist
I jumped to pull her inside
Holding doors like override

Hypnotized like trance
Train’s jaws in severance
Flanked by approaching jaws
I offered sacrifice
To free her from the vice
A greatest debt to the cosmos
for an opportunity to assist
We shall forever serve them
To remain selfless like clannish
To defer self to the finish

Contextual Commentary

When the frigid winds blew vehemently against the desert flower, she was taken aback by the fearsome experience that seemed to punish for no apparent reason. It was not possible to exit from the cruel hand of the tropospheric gyrations. Nevertheless, the desert plant was protected from permanent damage by her ribosomic roots. She hid in the sacred underground known as Ledumela for the duration of the storm. In due course, the winds relented to give way to the heavens that consistently embraced the desert flower. The harsh experience became like a polish that gave an extra shine and beautiful finish to the desert flower. As a consequence, the indefatigable flower produced a rich array of red and yellow petals which developed into the most beautiful corolla on the barren earth. The great creator was pleased along with the erudite ancestors.

Kgutlotharo – Kgwedi, Sefalaboho le Tosa

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Basotho babatle. Ketsena ditaba tsa baholoholo le bonkgono. Moo re thotseng teng tsebo ya kgale ya dinaledi. Hoya kgahlisa hotataiswa ke bona ka ditaba tsena tsa bonono, nalane le boqhweleqhwele ba bona. Hare bokeng ka ditaba tsena. Thokoza makhosi!

Maobane keile ka sebedisa motlanyatso hotshwantshisa kgutlotharo eo leebonang setshwantshong sena eleng naledi ephahametseng tsohle eleng Sefalabohoho. Keyona naledi efetohang Mphatlalatsane naledi ya meso dinakong tsetlang. Mphatlalatsane tshwanetse a rekgantshetse kgweding ya Hlakola. Hajwale kgweding ya Phupu rekgantshetswa ke Sefalabohoho.

Kgutlotharo - Kgwedi le Dinaledi Tse Pedi3

Keyahlalosa mengolong yaka jwale ka Basotho Origin of Mathematics, The Sacred Knowledge of the Desert le tseding hore baholoholo ba Basotho batswa dinaleding. Ke Batho ba mahodimo. Ke ka moo banaleng masika a hoila hore ba dule ba hlwekile ba sa silafatswe ke tsa lefatshe. Bonkgono ke moo basupelang teng qaleho ya bona. Ke ka baka leo batsebang ka dinaledi empa ba sena ditsebediswa tsa mabonela hole (telescopes) jwale ka diferkeikere. Mohlala, batseba hore honale naledi ebitswang Tosa hape naledi ena enale madinyane. Ke ka hoo hothweng “Hobona Tosa le madinyana ayona”.

Madinyana a Tosa ke dikgwedi tsa teng. Naledi ena enale dikgwedi tse ngata. Hape tseding tsa dikgwedi ke madinyana hoya ka bonyenyane batsona. Jwale potso ere: Basotho ba tseba jwang hore Tosa enale madinyana empa basena disebediswa tsa mabonela hole? Haokgonahale hobona dikgwedi tsa Tosa ntle le disebediswa tsa ponelohole. Hoo hopaka hore kannete baile ba nyanya tsebo ena letseweleng la mohlodi wa tsebo leng mokgubu wa kganare. Tsebo ena emading. Ke kabaka leo hothweng “Tsebo ya letswele emading”. Babetse ba tiise taba ena ka hore “Haele siyo mading, haeyo” hape bare “Haba saenyanya ke lefela la mafela”. Keyo taba ekgolo. Tsebo yannete keya letswele.

Morero wa Dinaledi Keeng?

Dinaledi ke tsona tse fanang ka tsebo ekgolo hofeta tsebo ya dikolo tsetlileng ka kgatello. Hobane dikolo tsena tsa kgatello le dikereke tsa teng dikgesa nalane le bonono ba sechaba sa thari entsho. Keyeo taba ekgolo! Baholoholo baile ba bona hore rebe le tsebo ya dinaledi hore dikgone hore kgantshetsa ka dinako tsohle. Leha re le mafifing dinaledi ditla dula dile teng.

Mohlala ke naledi ya Sefalabohoho. Haetla bitswa ka hore ke Sefalabohoho, ene efepelwa ke sechaba ka hoboka mahodimo haene echaba kgetlo la pele. Sefalabohoho se bonahala hanghang ka mora tikelo ya letsatsi. Dikakapa tse kgolo ditsibile hore ha letsatsi le dikela, re aparelwa ke kobo ya shwalane, sechaba seyahlokofala. Naledi ya Sefalabohoho ya kgantsha ka tsela ya hotshedisa le hotataisa ditseleng tsa kgale tsa bonkgono. Ke kabaka leo baneng bafepela Sefalabohoho ka Mabele kapa metsi a hlwekileng.

Rekgatha Efe Tema Hotloha Moo?

Jwale ka sechaba sa Rantsho, reile ra thefuleha habohloko ka baka la kgatello ya Makgowa. Lehlokofetse ka baka la hoamohwa naha ya bonkgono moo reneng reetsa mesebetsi ya rona teng ya nalane le bonono. Baholoholo ba ne ba aha sebopi ka letsopa; bakenya dibutswela tse entsweng ka makoko a pudi le dipompo tse entsweng ka letsopa kapa manaka a dikgama ho butswela sebopi. Bese ba nka leralla, ba le qhibidisa hotla ntsha tsepe eo baneng baetsa kayona dipitsa tsa tshepe, mabekere, dikotlolo, dikgaba, dithipa, mahale a ntwa kapa hotsoma jwale ka marumo, ditsenene, le tseding jwalojwalo.

Jwalo kajeno harena naha. Retshwana fela le ba dulang lesabasabeng katlasa komello ekgolo mayelana le bonono barona. Lesabasaba lena haretsebe hore letla fela neng. Feela, leha holejwalo, hareshebeng mahodimo. Hareleboheng ho dikakapa tsekgolo boSefalaboho leTosa leKgwedi entle. Dientse kgutlotharo.

Kajeno bolepi bosupa hore, Kgwedi etla ba haufi haholo le Sefalabohoho. Haole jwalo, etlaba lekgetlo lapele ka mora nako etelele. Lebellang hoo ha letsatsi le dikela.

Jwale kere Basotho, MaAfrika, dichaba tsohle tsa Afrika Borwa, latelang ditsela tsa bonkgono la baholo. Haeba obala mona, iputse potso ya hore basaleteng bonkgono kapa baholo lapeng la hao na? Oya ba natsa kapa haobankele hlohong? Moetlo wa hohlompha ho baholo oyaolatela na? Otseba hore otswa kae? Wena omang? Batswadi batswa kae? Ke dipotso tsekgolo tsena. Harekgutleleng sethong sa rona. Kehona moo retlang hothola teng mahlale a pateileng.

Moo Retswang Teng!

Keqetela ka hore:

Ke lekgolokwe ke lekotswana
Lahlaba kgoho ka lemao
Laisa hoMorena Kgorong
Lare “Bona Morena, ke hlabile”

Zulu, Mageba, Ndabezitha
Wa ka Malandela
Wa landel’inkomo zamadoda

Radebe, Hlubi, Bhungane, Mtimkhulu
Ngelelengele, Mashwabada
Washwabadel’inkomo nempondo zayo

Nkosi, Mtungwa, Mlotshwa, Siwela
Dlamini, Dlangamandla
Wenduku emnyama ya dabulamanzi
Nkonjane ya makhosi

Mangena, Mkhathini, Gumede
Khabanyova, Msuthu ka Khoza
Msuthu wesihlengela

Keokgothaletsa hore lewena o arabele mengolo ena. Romela dithothokiso kapa dithoko tsa hao. Ketla diphatlalatsa mona. Ketla thabela houtlwa maikutlo a hao ka leleme la hao. Reyaleboha.

Mannuku Wa Naledi

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Mannuku Wa Naledi
Mannuku wa Naledi
Mannuku wa Naledi
A phaphatheha matsweleng
ho Mannuku sefubeng

Mannuku Badimung
Mannuku Badimung
mophaphathehi moshanyana
ho Mannuku qhobosheyane

Atshireletswa matsweleng
Ho Mannuku sefubeng
Mannuku reyao leboha
Mannuku qhobosheyane

Contextual Commentary

When Mr. Moses Masondo kicked the boy out of his home at Orlando East in 1973, he impacted the life of the boy in an irreversible way. As destiny would have it, the great Mannuku of Naledi awaited the boy at her house. The boy arrived, having walked a long distance, and very much famished and parched. Mannuku picked the boy up and squeezed him between her huge breasts. That affection was to become the basis for the interpretation of nature. That boy, now the author of this book, pays tribute to the indefatigable Mannuku and the greatest mother that ever lived. It is the affection accorded to the boy by Mannuku that inspired these writings, as well as other social enterprises.

The Great Seagull

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

To arise above ground
To transcend earthbound
Others require airspeed
He advances without airspeed
How is that possible?
To lift himself above ground
Using vertical lift
To go beyond gravity

The caterpillar is earthbound
The seagull is heaven-bound
The vulture requires airspeed
The seagull without airspeed
He rises like didactic
Teaching us the syntactic

The heart-warming sun is brilliant
The blue sky cloudless
While the breeze grooms the grass below
The seagull must return to the sky
To gain a new perspective
To enumerate the relations
To analyze the network
To consider the permutations
Helicopter view attained
While self-interest is restrained

Contextual Commentary

When lifting himself from the ground, he must do this to gain transcendence. As he flips his powerful wings, he generates the much-needed lift. The airflow around the wings is comprised by low pressure above the wings and high pressure below the wings. The vector forces of the airflow create the forward movement he needs to take off as simulated by the ancient game of Diketo. As the Basotho describe the movement as Hotherekela it is this kind of movement that gives him the vertical lift of Sefofatsepa.

The African Origin of Mathematics – Paper

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Introduction and Background

There is a very interesting numerical concept among the Basotho of South Africa known as Tshelela which means the crossing. The immediate question that arises is: crossing to where? They are crossing over to the new base of ten from the old base of five. This then begs another question. Does it actually mean that they have two number bases of five and ten? What is the function of these number bases? If number systems were useful among the Basotho ancients, are they still useful today in this new age of electronic calculators and digital computers? What can we learn from indigenous African numerical concepts?

The popular myth according to Eurocentric version of history, is that there was no mathematics in Africa until the advent of the Europeans. Nothing could be further from the truth. We are debunking that myth in this paper by providing concrete analytical accounts of African origin of mathematics long before the advent of colonization. As a specific example, a small village of Matamong in the Eastern Free State Province of South Africa has inspired the book Sesotho Dictionary of Mathematics by this writer which boasts more than 500 pages of mathematics text from an African perspective. For the first time in the mathematics history of South Africa, a book documenting an indigenous mathematical knowledge of the Africans is born.

Analysis Methods

A number of analytical techniques have been used to produce this article namely Lewatsepa (algorithm analysis), Sefofatsepa (superset analysis) and Sedikakgubu (surround analysis) using the Basotho as a reference point. Before diving into the deep of the analytic and interpretive discussion, we briefly provide a background definition of the analysis methods used.

Lewatsepa (algorithm analysis), is about the computational merits of the mathematical method. How does the algorithmic method respond or behave with respect to the input size of a problem? Does the method experience a polynomial increase as the input size grows or does the algorithm remain well behaved like a logarithmic system despite a large input size? These are kinds of questions that were considered when developing this paper.

Sefofatsepa (superset analysis), was used to perform a superset analysis of mathematical knowledge. The premise of superset analysis is to look at the externals of the object and look at how that object fits in the big picture with respect to other objects. How the object relates to other objects? What is the network analysis of the object with respect to other objects? This gives us a helicopter view of a  phenomenon or mathematical knowledge as is the case here.

Sedikakgubu (surround analysis), is about the surround of the object. What kinds of things surround the object and how the object gets expressed or suppressed as a result of a surround configuration? The surround refers to the contextual factors of the object or mathematical knowledge as is the case in this paper. The analysis is driven by the cultural context of the origin of mathematical knowledge.

In this paper we address the questions raised above by exploring and analyzing the African history of mathematics, the number systems, the number bases and how this connects with African cosmology.

Excerpt from the scholarly paper The African Origin of Mathematics.

The Design Theory of Letanta

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Abstract

An African village of Matamong possesses a design theory of letanta an artifact used to catch small animals like nogwaja. Letanta is designed within the confines of a set of irreducible invariants and the requirement to venerate the spirits. The premise of this design philosophy is to reduce and possibly eliminate the prohibitive cost of survival through an iterative process of infinitesimal changes which eliminate extraneous material so that the final artifact engenders a survival maximizing experience. After globe trotting as a result of my exile which enabled me to observe other societies, I am in a unique position to report about letanta a long-term undertaking I continue to pursue as a research project. Analytical and interpretive findings show that an indigenous artifact like letanta provides an empirical evidence of the superiority of simple design concepts which deliver compact solutions to the great question of survival adaptation.

The Theory

The design theory of letanta is comprised by a set of axioms, irreducible invariants, spirituality, the collective and simple design.

Excerpt from the scholarly paper Design Theory of Letanta

African Telegraphy and Indigenous Innovation

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Abstract

Technological Innovation using indigenous knowledge systems in Africa is almost non-existent in modern scientific and engineering literature. This apparent hiatus of African technological artifacts by the African inventors tends to make it appear as though the African natives had neither the interest nor the intellectual curiosity to solve unique problems of their society using engineering principles especially in the area of telecommunication. This paper seeks to fill that gap by providing concrete analytical accounts of technological artifacts by the African natives like the talking drum, the trapezoidal drum, the double membrane and others designed to broadcast telegraphic information over long distances using the same principles of physics as is the case in modern telecommunication. The interesting fact is that the African engineering technologists of long ago had designed a wireless telecommunication system that was ahead of its time as confirmed by European observers in their historical accounts while the colonial authorities were still using the pony express-like system as a form of long distance communication before the invention of the electric telegraph in the 1800s. As a new society emerging from the harsh legacy of the past and given the shortage of technological expertise facing South Africa, these challenges should galvanize us to take a page from the past in order to create African solutions germane to the engineering challenges of the African problem domain.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge systems, African telegraphy, technological innovation, drum communication, networked drums, relay system, drum, talking drum, abstract drum machine, relay network graph.

Introduction

The popular myth is that a drum plays a musical function which confines it to producing sounds for purposes of dance and other forms of rendition. Even though that is what a drum is mainly used for nowadays, the Africans also used a drum as an appliance for long distance communication by means of a networked relay system. This enabled them to control and own the virtual telecommunication infrastructure at the same time. This concept of telecommunication should motivate the modern Africans to take stock of who owns the present day telecommunication infrastructure and how indigenous innovations overcame the problem of telecommunication infrastructure ownership.

The use of a mobile drum as a communication device as in a talking drum meant that the Africans were the system architects of their own telecommunication infrastructure, the message and the encoding of that message. The enterprise of this communication groundwork was not fixed to a certain location as is the case with present day fixed landlines. The system was mobile and able to broadcast while in motion in order to optimize the signal propagation and improve the signal noise ratio.

The utility of a drum machine for long distance communication raises the question of how the message was packaged for transmission. The African semiologists had to solve the problem of encoding as they had solved similar encoding challenges in other knowledge domains as demonstrated in their literary systems of communication, storytelling and preservation long before the advent of colonization as was the case in a West African country of Cameroon where the German missionaries in the 1800s found a printing press and books written in a native African script long before the advent of colonization under the great Bamum King Njoya. The missionaries also found a school that taught Bamum script using the syllabric encoding system.

Excerpt from the scholarly paper African Telegraphy and Indigenous Innovation

Historicity of Realtime Chronicles

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Realtime writing is a form of writing that records events of interest from the unique perspective of the recorder as they happen. These writings are captured in a diary, journal or unsent letter. This type of writing is characterised by concurrency of event and pen. Since such a journal entry captures an event with respect to the timeline, it becomes a historical account with more fidelity with respect to the events of the day.

Motivation for Keeping a Journal

While growing up as a shepherd boy in the Eastern Free State and QwaQwa, I frequently heard the word Leruwaruwa in African mythology from the griots of Matamong. I queried the raison detre of this monster and was told it was a big fish that fed the village when caught but ate the children who didn’t obey the rules and show respect to the wisdom keepers of the cohesive village.

Since historical questions coursed through my veins, I took African History at a Canadian University where I discovered the value of historical diaries. One of the diaries I read was that of Vasco Da Gama. I really wanted to know the truth about what he wrote when he circumvented our seashores and rivers in 1497 during his first voyage. Da Gama wrote on November 8 about the African natives of South Africa who ate whales, among others. This journal entry filled in the blanks and confirmed what the storytellers of Matamong had been saying about this Leruwaruwa during the hunting expeditions of the ancestors of long ago.

Excerpt from the booklet Historicity of Realtime Chronicles

Is Traditional Knowledge Relevant To Our Survival?

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

The first question is what is the problem? Why should we care about the traditional knowledge of some village society when Western Civilization is making our life easier and more convenient? The fact is that the academic education is not and can never be a foundation. It must build on a pre-existing foundation, which is who you are in terms of your cultural roots as a human being in society. If you are not sure of your African roots or have a lingering sense of disdain towards who you are as a human being then academic education is only going to give you the material skills to survive in a materially competitive world but will not give you what you don’t have or cure you of the curse of disdain towards one’s African roots. Moreover, the fundamental problem is that we are a colonially defeated people in the words of the Xhosa Prince Meligqili who spoke during the graduation ceremony of the Xhosa initiation school in which Nelson Mandela was one of the graduates as reported in his legendary book Long Walk To Freedom. Here is the excerpt of the speech by Prince Meligqili:

There sit your sons, young, healthy and handsome, the flower of the Xhosa tribe, the pride of our nation. We have just circumcised them in a ritual that promises them manhood, but I am here to tell you that it is an empty, illusory promise, a promise that can never be fulfilled. For we Xhosa, and all Black South Africans, are a conquered people. We are slaves in our own country. We are tenants on our own soil. We have no strength, no power, no control over our own destiny in the land of our birth. They will go to cities where they will live in shacks and drink cheap alcohol, all because we have no land to give them where they could prosper and multiply. They will cough their lungs out deep in the bowels of the White man’s mines, destroying their health, never seeing the sun, so that the White man can have a life of unequalled prosperity. Among these young men are Chiefs who will never rule because we have no power to govern ourselves; soldiers who will never fight for we have no weapons to fight with; scholars who will never teach because we have no place for them to study. The abilities, the intelligence, the promise of these young men will be squandered in their attempt to eke out a living doing the simplest, most mindless chores for the White man. These gifts today are naught, for we cannot give them the greatest gift of all, which is freedom and independence. I well know that Qamata is all-seeing and never sleeps, but I have a suspicion that Qamata may in fact be dozing. If this is the case, the sooner I die the better because then I can meet him and shake him awake and tell him that the children of Ngubengcuku, the flower of the Xhosa nation, are dying.” From the book Long Walk To Freedom by Nelson Mandela.

To tackle these questions of relevance with respect to indigenous knowledge in terms of our survival as a people we only have to look at our society and see the gut wrenching instances of moral decay. The African has lost a sense of pride and has departed from the African values of mutual respect, honour of the elders and the spirit of ubuntu. To address these questions, let us consider the case of a small animal the African mongoose. One of the stories narrated to me in the village was that the mongoose was like any other ordinary mouse that used to wind up inside the stomach of the snake known as masumu. The mongoose society was not happy with this kind of a brutal situation in being an easy meal for masumu.

One day the mongoose society sent a delegation for an urgent meeting with the creator that some innovative solution was needed to give the mongoose a survival advantage over masumu. Some survival improvements needed to be made in order to reverse this state of proverbial defeat by the ferocious snake. The following is the conversation between the mongoose and the creator already in progress.

CONVERSATION WITH THE CREATOR

The creator: “Why is this a problem?”

The mongoose: “I am your humble creation. I am here to fulfill my design goals in raising a family, contributing to my society and paying tribute to my creator. Masumu stands in the way of that tribute. Moreover, what do I teach my children? That they will always become a meal for masumu? What glory is there for them if their only destiny is to wind up inside the stomach of a ruthless serpent?”

The creator: “What do you want me to do?”

The mongoose: “Give me the guts to face masumu. Give me the speed of a lightening so that I can strike at him like a lightening flash!”

The creator: “Is this a serious request?”

The mongoose: “I wouldn’t be making this earnest submission to my creator if I had no iota of genuine belief in your ability to give me the power I need to defeat my adversary.”

The creator: “Since you truly believe in your request, so it shall be.”

The mongoose was pleased with the interaction as she thanked the creator and turned to return to the mongoose society. As she was about to take off, the creator called the mongoose back to the negotiation table.

The creator: “You know it’s not easy fighting masumu because his teeth are like a mean-spirited syringe that injects poison into living flesh. The venom is digestive as it begins to digest the internals of the flesh resulting in excessive hemorrhage. What is going to happen to you when he injects his lethal fangs into your body?”

The mongoose: “I don’t want to succumb to his lethal dose. Please give me the molecular ability to resist his deadly saliva.”

The creator: “I shall make you into a biologically advanced form of life. From now on, you shall command unbounded audacity to face those who seek to destroy your way of life. You shall have the resourcefulness and wherewithal to destroy their evil crown.”

It didn’t take too long afterwards when the two mongoose siblings faced off with a ferocious masumu. The snake lifted more than half of its body off the ground and inflated its heart-throbbing hood while flicking its forked tongue sending an unequivocal message to the mongoose siblings that masumu meant serious business.

An older mongoose said to the other: “Let me take him on. You must stand, watch and analyse the fight. If I get killed as a result of my forced errors, you must correct those mistakes and defeat him. It’s only when we attain an outright victory over masumu that our society shall rise like an unconquerable battalion facing the future with pride.”

In the ensuing fight, masumu injected his lethal venom into the body of the mongoose. He got dazed by the venom and staggered to the ground. The younger mongoose charged at the snake. Like a lightening flash, she attacked the head of the snake and destroyed it with extreme aggression and thereafter dragged it to the den where other mongoose family members awaited them. The older mongoose recovered from the venom and soon arrived at the den.

This was the day when  the mongoose became the architect of his destiny. Today the mongoose has no fear of any snake. In fact the younger mongoose noticed that even though the snake seemed to be having a terrifying strike speed, the speed was not fast enough and could be broken if the mongoose improved his attack speed like a lightening strike. Thus the mongoose became like a giant mouse that killed and ate the snake.

This teaches us that the state of colonial conquest is not natural and must not arrest our creative minds and prevent our creative juices from flowing. We can regain the sovereignty that was cruelly robbed from our foremothers and forefathers. As the sons and daughters of the African soil we have it within us to succeed provided we know who we are and where we are going. This is where the power of indigenous knowledge comes in. It’s relevant to our survival requirements. If the mongoose had decided to go to the snake school to learn how to progress in life like snakes do it would never have arrived at its evolutionary revelation and understanding that it was feasible to conquer the awe inspiring snake. The snake school would have taught the mongoose children to be cognizant and accepting of a master servant relationship between itself and the mongoose. The mongoose had to learn these revolutionary ideas from the mongoose knowledge system. Learning the ropes from the ancestors gives the new generation the intellectual fighting sticks to reclaim and regain our sovereignty in order to become the architects of our own destiny.

This excerpt from The Indigenous Knowledge of the Village.

Dimakatso

By Zulumathabo Zulu © 2015

Dimakatso Discourse – Part I

To subdue adversity unfeasible
To transcend misfortune unthinkable
Yet to arise to be a great officer
A ceiling formerly unreachable
Despite sexism that prevailed
Like a star with light to emit
A plastic mind able to retrofit
Dimakatso a desirable combatant
For that rank a determined claimant
To command despite risks
To extend the freedom afar
To free them even at treacherous Darfur

Despite humbled by her beginnings
She was able to unbolt stubborn doors
The daring Dimakatso adjusted well
To persistent obstacles that befell
Like unstoppable despite her gender
Despite unkindness to force surrender
To persevere despite the scar
To sparkle yet volcanic tar
The world salutes a warrior female
Even Canada salutes the Colonel

CONTEXTUAL COMMENTARY

When the fearsome Masumu threatens the naïve mongoose, the mongoose must advance some transcendental moves. She must overcome her naivety. She must overcome her socialized thinking. Moreover, she must trust her instincts. It is this kind of radical transcendence that will give her a survival advantage. When a direct attack seems unfeasible, she can begin with a sideways attack in order to drive a wedge between the indomitable Masumu and his comfort zone. It’s when he feels uncomfortable, that the mongoose can directly stage a determined attack. Eventually, Masumu must succumb to the gutsy mongoose that has an instinctive grasp of the volatile situation.